Black pepper is native to South India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. Beside piperine, the essential oil is composed of various chemical constituents and includes terpene, pinene, camphene, sabinene, B-bisabolene.
This warming oil can be used to great effect to help circulation and specifically to help with muscle tone. It has beneficient, analgesic properties for skin care, while its warming effect stimulates blood flow.